Budget and Financial Management

budget
Budget and Financial Management

The Andrew Young School of Policy Studies faculty and research associates are nationally recognized in budgeting and financial management. Some highlights: Bart Hildreth is editor of the Municipal Finance Journal and Carolyn Bourdeaux is chair of the Association for Budgeting and Financial Managemen (ABFM).

Notable Reports

Georgia's Budget: The Big Picture (Updated January 2017)

CSLF Presentation, Jan. 18, 2017, Carolyn Bourdeaux
This briefing gives a high-level overview of the Georgia budget, looking at fiscal years 2017 and 2018. The presentation addresses structural revenue dilemmas, current economic constraints, areas of concern in the state’s expenditures, as well as key topics: K-12 education, higher education, Medicaid and transportation. (Note: The attached version updates the original presentation given in November 2016. The latest version reflects new budget information from the Georgia governor's office.)

    Georgia's Rankings Among the States: Budget, Taxes and Other Indicators (2017)

    FRC Report, Publication No. 291. Jan. 12, 2017, Robert Buschman and Wesley Jones 
    This annual publication is a collection of metrics and state rankings that compare Georgia to other states. Several comparisons focus on total state or local government revenue and expenditures, but the guide also includes measures that compare either expenditures or state characteristics within specific functional areas, such as education, health and transportation.

    Georgia's Budget: The Big Picture (Updated January 2017)

    CSLF Presentation, Jan. 18, 2017, Carolyn Bourdeaux
    This briefing gives a high-level overview of the Georgia budget, looking at fiscal years 2017 and 2018. The presentation addresses structural revenue dilemmas, current economic constraints, areas of concern in the state’s expenditures, as well as key topics: K-12 education, higher education, Medicaid and transportation. (Note: The attached version updates the original presentation given in November 2016. The latest version reflects new budget information from the Georgia governor's office.)

      Age-Based Property Tax Exemptions in Georgia

      CSLF Report, Publication No. 29, Sept. 27, 2016, H. Spencer Banzhaf, Ryan Mickey, Carlianne Patrick
      Many local jurisdictions across the United States, including a number in Georgia, offer property tax exemptions to older Americans. These age-based exemptions can vary widely and be controversial. This new report attempts to inform such debates by describing the prevalence of age-based exemptions across Georgia's local governments, as well as offering a way to determine the financial impact on local budgets.

      Georgia's Revenue and Expenditure Portfolio in Brief: FY 2013 Data

      FRC Brief, Publication No. 286, Aug. 16, 2016, Mels de Zeeuw, Lindsay Kuhn and Carolyn Bourdeaux
      This brief provides an overview and analysis of changes in Georgia’s state and local expenditure and revenue portfolios and rankings between fiscal years 1995 and 2013. It is an update to earlier reports. Currently, Georgia ranks 49th in combined state and local own-source revenue and 49th in combined state and local direct expenditures.

      Georgia's Rankings Among the States: Budget, Taxes and Other Indicators (2016)

      FRC Report, Jan. 11, 2016, Mels de Zeeuw and William Serrano-Franklin
      This 2016 guide is an update to an earlier version published in the summer of 2015. It includes a collection of metrics and state rankings that compare Georgia to other states. Several comparisons focus on total state or local government revenue and expenditures, but the guide also includes measures that compare either expenditures or state characteristics within specific functional areas, such as education, health and transportation.

        A Briefing on Georgia's Budget: The Big Picture

        CSLF Presentation, November 2015, Carolyn Bourdeaux
        This presentation gives a high-level overview of the Georgia budget by addressing structural revenue dilemmas, current economic constraints, areas of concern in the state’s expenditures, and other forces affecting the state budget.

        Georgia's Ranking Among the States: Budget, Taxes and Other Indicators

        CSLF Report, Publication No. 15, June 16, 2015, Elton Davis
        This 2015 guide includes a collection of metrics and state rankings that compare Georgia to other states across the nation. Several of the comparisons focus on total state or local government revenue and expenditures, but the report also includes measures that compare either expenditures or state characteristics within specific functional areas, such as education, health and transportation.

        Georgia's Revenue and Expenditure Portfolio in Brief, FY 1995 - FY 2012

        CSLF/FRC Report, CSLF Publication No. 13, May 5, 2015, Elton Davis, XiXi Lin and Carolyn Bourdeaux
        This joint brief provides an update to the Fiscal Research Center’s report “Georgia’s Revenue and Expenditure Portfolio in Brief, 1989 - 2010," with an overview and analysis of changes in Georgia’s state and local expenditure and revenue portfolios and rankings between fiscal years 1995 and 2012.

          A Briefing on Georgia’s Budget FY15A – FY16

          Presentation, November 2014, Carolyn Bourdeaux
          This presentation details the FY 2015 budget outlook for Georgia, and it explains the state's current revenue dilemma.

          Georgia’s Post Great Recession Revenue Recovery

          CSLF Brief, Publication No. 3, September 25, 2014, James Alm, David Sjoquist
          The “Great Recession” wreaked havoc on the revenues of state and local government, including Georgia’s. Although the U.S. economy has improved since the end of the Great Recession, state government revenues have in most cases still not completely recovered. In this brief, we explore the extent to which state government revenues have recovered from the effects of the Great Recession.

          The State and Local Government Workforce: Trends and Patterns in Georgia, the South, and the United States

          CSLF Report, Publication No. 2, September 24, 2014, Gregory B. Lewis and Rahul Pathak
          This report compares state and local governments (SLGs) workforce patterns in Georgia, the region and U.S. CSLF experts find that Georgia’s governmental workforce faces one of the largest public-private pay disparities in the country. The report goes on to explore pay differentials by state and local government and by sector.

          Getting Adjusted to the New Normal. Local Government Finance in Georgia Post-Recession

          Presentation, May 15, 2014, Carolyn Bourdeaux
          A presentation to the National Law Enforcement Leadership Forum.

          State and Federal Public Finance

          Presentation, May 15, 2014, Sally Wallace
          A presentation to an investment company in Atlanta.

            A Briefing on Georgia's Fiscal Year 2014-2015 Budget With a Focus on Education Funding

            Presentation, November 01, 2013, Carolyn Bourdeaux
            A presentation to the Georgia Partnership for Excellence in Education.

            A Briefing on Georgia's Fiscal Year 2014-2015 Budget With a Focus on Education Funding - Video

            Presentation, November 01, 2013, Carolyn Bourdeaux
            A presentation to the Georgia Partnership for Excellence in Education.

            Geographic Dispersion of Federal Funds in Georgia and its Major Urban Regions

            FRC Brief 264, October 04, 2013, Peter Bluestone
            This brief examines the geographic distribution of federal spending in Georgia.

            Zero-Base Budgeting for the 21st Century Public Administrator

            FRC Report 260, March 24, 2013, Ron Shelby
            This report discusses the history of Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) reform, how to implement classic 1970s style ZBB reform and strengths and weaknesses of the reform.

            The Department of Defense Budget Cuts: Economic Impact on Georgia and Selected Counties

            FRC Brief 261, February 28, 2013, Peter Bluestone
            This brief examines the economic impact Department of Defense procurement contracts, grants, and civilian wages have on the state of Georgia as well as selected counties.

            The Incentives Created by the Tax-Benefit System Facing Low-Income Families in Georgia - Brief

            FRC Brief 258, February 20, 2013, Chelsea Coleman, Kendon Darlington, Mark Rider, Morgan Sinclair
            This brief describes the incentives created by the major taxes and public assistance programs facing low-income families in Georgia.

            The Incentives Created by the Tax-Benefit System Facing Low-Income Families in Georgia

            FRC Report 258, February 11, 2013, Chelsea Coleman, Kendon Darlington, Mark Rider, Morgan Sinclair
            This report describes the incentives created by the major taxes and public assistance programs facing low-income families in Georgia.

            Georgia's Revenue and Expenditure Portfolio in Brief, 1989-2010

            FRC Brief 254, January 11, 2013, Carolyn Bourdeaux, Sungman Jun, Nicholas Warner, Sandy Zook
            This brief uses Census data to examine how Georgia ranks in terms of spending and revenue by functions and objects and examines how Georgia's portfolio has changed over time compared to national peers.

              A Briefing on Georgia's Budget and TABOR

              Presentation, November 28, 2012, Carolyn Bourdeaux
              A presentation to the Georgia Chapter of the AARP.

              A Briefing on Georgia's Budget

              Presentation, November 14, 2012, Carolyn Bourdeaux
              A presentation to the Georgia Partnership for Excellence in Education.

              The Changing Shape of State Spending

              Presentation, September 25, 2012, Carolyn Bourdeaux
              A presentation to the Southern Legislative Conference.

              Georgia's Revenue and Expenditure Portfolio in Brief, 1989-2009

              FRC Brief 249, August 14, 2012, Carolyn Bourdeaux, Sungman Jun, Nicholas Warner
              This brief uses Census data to examine how Georgia ranks in terms of spending and revenue by functions and objects and examines how Georgia's portfolio has changed over time compared to national peers.

                Comparing Georgia's Revenue Portfolio to Regional and National Peers

                FRC Report 222, January 01, 2011, Carolyn Bourdeaux, Sungman Jun
                This report updates Buschman's 2009 report ("Comparing Georgia's Fiscal Policies to Regional and National Peers" [FRC Report No. 201]) with 2008 and 2010 Census data.

                  Review of State Revenue Actions, 1999-2010, A

                  FRC Report 217, November 01, 2010, Robert Buschman
                  This report examines tax and other revenue changes enacted by the states since 1999 with particular focus on Georgia's Southeast and AAA-rated peers, and how states have dealt with budget gaps in two post-recession periods.

                  Measuring the Effect of Job Creation Tax Credits

                  Presentation, August 13, 2010, Laura Wheeler
                  A presentation to the annual Federation of Tax Administrators (FTA) Conference held in Springfield, IL.

                  Estimating Georgia's Structural Budget Deficit

                  FRC Report 209, August 04, 2010, Carolyn Bourdeaux, David L. Sjoquist
                  This report examines whether the state of Georgia faces a structural deficit and concludes that it does. The deficit will total approximately $1.8 billion in FY2012 and the state will need to make systemic structural changes to bring its revenues and expenditures back into alignment over the long term.

                  Magnitude and Distribution of Georgia's Low Income Tax Credit, The

                  FRC Brief 207, June 25, 2010, Andrew Stephenson
                  This brief shows how the value of Georgia's low income tax credit is distributed across income classes.

                  Comparing Georgia's Fiscal Policies to Regional and National Peers

                  FRC Report 201, December 01, 2009, Robert D. Buschman
                  The purpose of this report is to analyze the major components of Georgia's state and local revenue and expenditure mixes relative to its peer states.

                  Current Charges and Miscellaneous Revenues: A Comparative Analysis of Georgia and Selective States - Brief

                  FRC Brief 202, December 01, 2009, Peter Bluestone
                  This brief examines Georgia's current charges and miscellaneous general revenue and compares them to the AAA bond rated states, the Southeastern neighbor states, and the U.S. average for fiscal years 2007 and 1992.

                  Current Charges and Miscellaneous Revenues: A Comparative Analysis of Georgia and Selective States

                  FRC Report 202, December 01, 2009, Peter Bluestone
                  This report examines Georgia's current charges and miscellaneous general revenue and compares them to the AAA bond rated states, the Southeastern neighbor states, and the U.S. average for fiscal years 2007 and 1992.

                  Georgia Revenues and Expenditures - Brief

                  FRC Brief 188, February 01, 2009, Peter Bluestone
                  This report presents a geographic analysis of who bears the burden of state taxes and who benefits from state public expenditures.

                  Georgia Revenues and Expenditures

                  FRC Report 188, February 01, 2009, Peter Bluestone
                  This report presents a geographic analysis of who bears the burden of state taxes and who benefits from state public expenditures.

                  Growth and Local Government Spending in Georgia - Brief

                  FRC Brief 189, February 01, 2009, Nara Monkam
                  This brief is a technical analysis that estimates the effect of local government spending on economic growth at the county level in Georgia.

                  Growth and Local Government Spending in Georgia

                  FRC Report 189, February 01, 2009, Nara Monkam
                  This report is a technical analysis that estimates the effect of local government spending on economic growth at the county level in Georgia.

                  Budget Stabilization Funds: A Cross-State Comparison - Brief

                  FRC Brief 161, August 01, 2007, Carolyn Bourdeaux
                  This brief provides a discussion of the trends of budget reserves in Georgia and other states and state policy dictating the size of the reserves.

                  Analysis of the Implementation of Program Budgeting in Georgia, An

                  FRC Report 147, March 01, 2007, Carolyn Bourdeaux
                  This report discusses the challenges faced by the State of Georgia in the transition to program budgeting.

                  Analysis of the Implementation of Program Budgeting in Georgia - Brief, An

                  FRC Brief 147, March 01, 2007, Carolyn Bourdeaux
                  This brief discusses the challenges faced by the State of Georgia in the transition to program budgeting.

                  Legislative Influences on Performance-Based Budgeting Reform - Brief

                  FRC Brief 128, May 01, 2006, Carolyn Bourdeaux
                  Using data from several surveys of the states as well as a survey of Georgia state legislators, this brief examines the role of legislators in the implementation of performance-based management and budgeting reforms.

                  Legislative Influences on Performance-Based Budgeting Reform

                  FRC Report 128, May 01, 2006, Carolyn Bourdeaux
                  Using data from several surveys of the states as well as a survey of Georgia state legislators, this report examines the role of legislators in the implementation of performance-based management and budgeting reforms.

                  Georgia Fiscal History of the Past Forty Years, A

                  FRC Brief 127, April 01, 2006, Richard R. Hawkins
                  This report describes spending and revenue trends through four decades and relates the trends to the agendas of the state's governors. It concludes with a list of challenges for this decade and beyond.

                  Georgia Fiscal History of the Past Forty Years, A

                  FRC Report 127, April 01, 2006, Richard R. Hawkins
                  This report describes spending and revenue trends through four decades and relates the trends to the agendas of the state's governors. It concludes with a list of challenges for this decade and beyond.

                  Historical Perspective of Georgia's Economy, A

                  FRC Report 100, February 01, 2005, Mary Mathewes, David Boldt
                  This report chronicles the history of Georgia's economy from the 1950s to the present and provides an outlook for the future growth areas in Georgia.

                  Revenue Estimates for American Jobs Creation Act of 2004

                  Policy Memorandum, January 02, 2005, David L. Sjoquist
                  This memorandum reviews a list of provisions and estimated Federal budget effects provided in the CBO report.

                  Twelve Years of Budget Growth: Where has the Money Gone?

                  FRC Report 84, July 01, 2003, Alan Essig
                  This report analyzes the growth in the state budget over the past 12 years and identifies specific policy decisions that caused and resulted in changes in budget.

                  Debt Management Plan for Georgia

                  Policy Memorandum, December 02, 2002, Roy Bahl, Ross Rubenstein, David L. Sjoquist, Sally Wallace
                  This memorandum reviews the draft of the updated version of the Debt Management Plan.

                  Where Has the Money Gone? Part II. The Supplemental Budget

                  FRC Report 62, August 01, 2001, Alan Essig
                  This report examines the sources of additional general fund revenues within the supplemental budget and how those general fund revenues have been appropriated for fiscal years 1996 through 2001.

                  Decade of Budget Growth: Where Has the Money Gone?, A

                  FRC Report 46, September 01, 2000, Alan Essig
                  This report presents an analysis of state budget growth between fiscal years 1991 and 2000. In specific, policy decisions that drive the budget increases are highlighted.

                  Performance Based Budgeting Requirements in State Governments

                  FRC Brief 7, June 01, 1998, Julia Melkers, Katherine G. Willoughby
                  This brief addresses the trend toward improving performance in state government through the use of performance-based budgeting.

                  Georgia's Revenue Shortfall Reserve: An Analysis of its Role, Size and Structure

                  FRC Brief 5, March 01, 1998, David L. Sjoquist
                  This brief explores Georgia's "rainy day" funds.

                  Georgia's Revenue Shortfall Reserve: An Analysis of its Role, Size and Structure

                  FRC Report 5, March 01, 1998, David L. Sjoquist
                  This report explores Georgia's "rainy day" funds.

                  Georgia Banking: An Overview

                  FRC Report 96.4, May 01, 1996, Samuel Skogstad
                  A description of the current Georgia regulatory environment for the banking industry.

                  Telecommunication Taxation: The Georgia Case

                  FRC Report 96.3, May 01, 1996, Richard McHugh
                  An examination and assessment of the current structure of telecommunications taxation in Georgia.